“Should I Stay or Should I Go?” Relationships Between Emotion Regulation and Basic Needs Satisfaction of Parents Displaced in Ukraine and Abroad (During the First 6 Months of The Russian Invasion of Ukraine)


  • Anastasiia Shyroka Department of Psychology and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ukrainian Catholic University 17 Ilariona Svientsitskoho St., Lviv, 79000, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5265-2794
  • Oksana Senyk Department of Psychology and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ukrainian Catholic University 17 Ilariona Svientsitskoho St., Lviv, 79000, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1657-4490
  • Tetiana Zavada Department of Psychology and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ukrainian Catholic University 17 Ilariona Svientsitskoho St., Lviv, 79000, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9745-2772
  • Olena Vons Department of Psychology and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ukrainian Catholic University 17 Ilariona Svientsitskoho St., Lviv, 79000, Ukraine
  • Anna Kornadt Department of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, University of Luxembourg 11, Porte des Sciences, L-4366 Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6634-0812




emotion regulation, displaced persons, Russian invasion of Ukraine, parenthood


Aim. The ability to regulate emotions depends on many factors, but for displaced persons, the satisfaction of basic needs is likely to be among the most important. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the degree of basic needs satisfaction and their relationship with indicators of emotion regulation in parents displaced within Ukraine and abroad due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022.

Methods. The study sample comprised of parents (98% of whom were mothers), aged 18-55, who fled the war from 23 different regions of Ukraine to the safer Ukrainian regions (N = 99) or abroad (N = 241). Participants answered questions about their demographics, basic needs satisfaction, and emotion regulation.

Results. There was no significant difference between parents displaced in Ukraine or abroad in access to basic resources, conditions of accommodation, medical care and emotional support, but parents abroad had better access to employment and education of their children. Parents in both groups had positive (refocused on planning, put the situation into perspective) and negative (rumination) strategies of emotion regulation. Parents who had higher level of their basic needs’ satisfaction, scored higher on positive emotion regulation strategies and were less likely to experience emotion regulation difficulties.

Conclusion. Basic needs satisfaction can be considered an important protective factor for displaced persons’ emotional regulation. The obtained results allowed drawing of conclusions only about people who were able to participate in the study. The problem of access to a broader target population is discussed.


Download data is not yet available.


Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2), 217-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004.

Bogic, M., Njoku, A., & Priebe, S. (2015). Long-term mental health of war-refugees: A systematic literature review. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 15. Article 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12914-015-0064-9.

Buchanan, E. M., Gillenwaters, A., Scofield, J. E., & Valentine, K. D. (2019). MOTE: Measure of the Effect: Package to assist in effect size calculations and their confidence intervals. R package version 1.0.1.

Cohodes, E. M., McCauley, S., Preece, D. A., Gross, J. J., & Gee, D. G. (2022). Parents’ emotion suppression exacerbates the effect of COVID-19 stress on youth internalizing symptomatology. Emotion. Advance online publication. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0001174.

Cludius, B., Mennin, D., & Ehring, T. (2020). Emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic process. Emotion, 20(1), 37-42. https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000646.

De Clercq, D., Fatima, T., & Jahanzeb, S. (2022). Pandemic crisis and employee skills: How emotion regulation and improvisation limit the damaging effects of perceived pandemic threats on job performance. Journal of Management & Organization, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2022.51.

Di Giuseppe, M., Orrù, G., Gemignani, A., Ciacchini, R., Miniati, M., & Conversano, C. (2022). Mindfulness and defense mechanisms as explicit and implicit emotion regulation strategies against psychological distress during massive catastrophic events. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(19). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912690.

European Union. (2022). Information for people fleeing the war in Ukraine. https://eu-solidarity-ukraine.ec.europa.eu/information-people-fleeing-war-ukraine_en.

Fazel, M., Reed, R. V., Panter-Brick, C., & Stein, A. (2012). Mental health of displaced and refugee children resettled in high-income countries: Risk and protective factors. The Lancet, 379(9812), 266-282. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60051-2.

Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2007). The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 23(3), 141-149. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759.23.3.141.

Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26(1), 41-54. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOBA.0000007455.08539.94.

Hallion, L. S., Steinman, S. A., Tolin, D. F., & Diefenbach, G. J. (2018). Psychometric properties of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and its short forms in adults with emotional disorders. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article 539. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00539.

Han, Z. R., Lei, X., Qian, J., Li, P., Wang, H., & Zhang, X. (2016). Parent and child psychopathological symptoms: The mediating role of parental emotion dysregulation. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 21(3), 161-168. https://doi.org/10.1111/camh.12169.

Havighurst, S. S., Radovini, A., Hao, B., & Kehoe, C. E. (2020). Emotion-focused parenting interventions for prevention and treatment of child and adolescent mental health problems: a review of recent literature. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 33(6), 586-601. https://doi.org/10.1097/yco.0000000000000647.

Highlander, A., Zachary, C., Jenkins, K., Loiselle, R., McCall, M., Youngstrom, J., McKee, L. G., Forehand, R., & Jones, D. J. (2022). Clinical presentation and treatment of early-onset behavior disorders: The role of parent emotion regulation, emotion socialization, and family income. Behavior Modification, 46(5), 1047-1074. https://doi.org/10.1177/01454455211036001.

Hu, T., Zhang, D., Wang, J., Mistry, R., Ran, G., & Wang, X. (2014). Relation between emotion regulation and mental health: A meta-analysis review. Psychological Reports, 114(2), 341-362. https://doi.org/10.2466/03.20.PR0.114k22w4.

Milojevich, H., Machlin, L., & Sheridan, M. (2020). Early adversity and children's emotion regulation: Differential roles of parent emotion regulation and adversity exposure. Development and Psychopathology, 32(5), 1788-1798. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579420001273.

Porter, M., & Haslam, N. (2005). Predisplacement and postdisplacement factors associated with mental health of refugees and internally displaced persons: a meta-analysis. JAMA, 294(5), 602-612. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.294.5.602.

Pumariega, A. J., Rothe, E., & Pumariega, J. B. (2005). Mental health of immigrants and refugees. Community Mental Health Journal, 41(5), 581-597. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-005-6363-1.

Revelle, W. (2021). Psych: procedures for psychological, psychometric and personality research. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=psych.

Schultheis, A. M., Mayes, L. C., & Rutherford, H. J. V. (2019). Associations between emotion regulation and parental reflective functioning. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28(4), 1094-1104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-01326-z.

Schwarzer, N.-H., Nolte, T., Fonagy, P., & Gingelmaier, S. (2021). Mentalizing and emotion regulation: Evidence from a nonclinical sample. International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 30(1), 34-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/0803706X.2021.1873418.

Selker, R., Love, J., Dropmann, D., & Moreno, V. (2022). Jmv: The “jamovi” analyses. https://cran.r-project.org/package=jmv.

Shaffer, A., & Obradović, J. (2017). Unique contributions of emotion regulation and executive functions in predicting the quality of parent–child interaction behaviors. Journal of Family Psychology, 31(2), 150–159. https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000269.

United Nations International Children`s Emergency Fund. (2022, March 24). More than half of Ukraine`s children displaced after one month of war. Ongoing violence across the country has created a child rights crisis that could last for generations. https://www.unicef.org/ukraine/en/press-releases/more-half-ukraines-children-displaced-after-one-month-war.

Waterschoot, J., Morbée, S., Vermote, B., Brenning, K., Flamant, N., Vansteenkiste, M., & Soenens, B. (2022). Emotion regulation in times of COVID-19: A person-centered approach based on self-determination theory. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-02623-5.

Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Rudolph, J., Kerin, J., & Bohadana-Brown, G. (2022). Parent emotional regulation: A meta-analytic review of its association with parenting and child adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 46(1), 63-82. https://doi.org/10.1177/01650254211051086.




How to Cite

Shyroka, A., Senyk, O., Zavada, T., Vons, O., & Kornadt, A. (2023). “Should I Stay or Should I Go?” Relationships Between Emotion Regulation and Basic Needs Satisfaction of Parents Displaced in Ukraine and Abroad (During the First 6 Months of The Russian Invasion of Ukraine). Journal of Education Culture and Society, 14(1), 269–287. https://doi.org/10.15503/jecs2023.1.269.287