The unwanted past and urban regeneration of Communist heritage cities. Case study: European Capitals of Culture (ECoC) Riga 2014, Pilsen 2015 and Wroclaw 2016

  • Corina Turșie West University of Timisoara, 4 V. Parvan Blvd., 300223, Timisoara, Romania
Keywords: unwanted past, image, urban regeneration, culture, European

Abstract

Within the ECoC programme, it has been argued that the European dimension is most visible when the candidates reflect their own history as a part of  European history, particularly when hinting at their involvement with the major ideologies of twentieth century, such as National Socialism or Communism. ECoC is about cities re-inventing their identities, re-narrating their history in a European context. But how should ex-communist cities deal with their unwanted past and narrate it in order to fit into the European dimension of the project? The focus of this investigation is on three ex-ECOCs from ex-Communist Europe, chosen for several reasons: geographical position (Central, Eastern/Northern European countries, ex-communist past, new membership of the European Union (since 2004), the year of holding the title (the two ECoC selection criteria exist since 2010). Using qualitative content analysis on a set of documents (application books, official web pages and ex-post evaluations) the study will offer an analysis of cities’ politics of memory and urban regeneration strategies.

References

Adler, E. (1997). Seizing the middle ground: Constructivism in world politics. European Journal of International Relations, 3(3). 319-363.

Baločkaitė, R. (2012). Coping with the Unwanted Past in the Planned Soviet Towns: Visaginas, Tychy and Nowa Huta. Slovo, 24(1). 41-57.

Banjeglav, T. (2012). Memory of War or War over Memory? The Official Politics of Remembering in 1990s Croatia. Vienna: Institute for Human Sciences.

Bianchini, F., Parkinson, M. (Eds.) (1993). Cultural Policy and Urban Regeneration. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Cogliandro, G. (2001). European cities of culture for the Year 2000: A wealth of urban cultures for celebrating the turn of the century. Bruxelles: Association of the European Cities of Culture of the year 2000, AECC/AVEC.

Council Resolution No. 85/C153/02 from 13 June 1985 regarding the event “European City of Culture”, Official Journal, C 153 , 22.06.1985 P. 0002 – 0002. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:41985X0622&from=EN.

Decision No. 1622/2006/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 2006 establishing a Community action for the European Capital of Culture event for the years 2007 to 2019, Official Journal of the European Union, L 304/1, 3.11.2006.

European Commission (2014). A New Narrative for Europe. The Mind and Body of Europe. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/culture/policy/new-narrative/documents/declaration_en.pdf.

Evans, G. (2005). Measure for measure: Evaluating the Evidence of Culture’s Contribution to Regeneration. Urban Studies, 42. 959-983.

Florida, R. (1992). The rise of the Creative Class and how it’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday life. New York: Basic Books.

Garcia, B. (2004). Urban regeneration, arts programming and major events: Glasgow 1990, Sydney 2000 and Barcelona 2004. The International Journal of Cultural Policy, 10. 103-118.

Gonzalez, S. (2011). Bilbao and Barcelona in Motion: how Urban Regeneration Models Travel and Mutate in the Global Flows of Policy Tourism. Urban Studies, 48. 1397-1418.

Graham, B., Ashworth, G., Tunbridge, J. E. (2000). A Geography of Heritage: Power, Culture and Economy. London: Arnold.

Grodach, C., Loukaitou-Sideris, A. (2007). Cultural development strategies and urban revitalisation. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 13. 349-366.

Hall, T., Hubbard, P. (Eds.) (1998). The Entrepreneurial City: Geographies of Politics, Regime and Representation. New York: John Wiley&Sons.

Hallbwachs, M. (1992). On collective memory. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Hemphill L., Berry J, McGreal S. (2004). An indicator-based Approach to Measuring Sustainable Urban Regeneration Performance. Urban Studies, 41. 725-772.

Immler, N., Sakkers, H. (2014). (Re)Programming Europe: European Capitals of Culture: rethinking the role of culture. Journal of European Studies, 14(1). 3-29.

Light, D. (2000). Gazing on communism: heritage tourism and post-communist identities in Germany, Hungary and Romania. Tourism Geographies, 2. 157–176.

Miles, M., (2005). Testing the Rhetoric of Culturally Led Urban Development. Urban Studies, 42. 889-911.

Miles, S., Paddison, R. (2005). The Rise and Rise of Culture-led Urban regeneration. Urban Studies, 42. 833-839.

Monti, M. (2010). A new strategy for the single market at the service of Europe’s economy and society. Report to the President of the European Commission José Manuel Barroso. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/strategy/docs/monti_report_final_10_05_2010_en.pdf.

Norra, P. (1989). Between Memory and History: Les Lieux de Mémoire. Representations, 26. 7-24.

Palonen, E. (2010). Creating Communities: The Postcommunist City-Text of Budapest. Transit. Retrieved from http://www.iwm.at/read-listen-watch/transit-online/creating-communities.

Parés, M., Costa, M. M., Blanco, I. (2014). Geographies of governance: How place matters in urban regeneration. Urban Studies, 51. 3129-3146.

Pilsen 2015 (2010). Pilsen, Open up! Retrieved from: http://www.plzen2015.cz/en/sites/plzen2015.cz.en/files/pilsen_application_en.pdf

Porter, M. E. (1995). The competitive advantage of the inner city, Harvard Business Review, 3. 55-71.

Ricoeur, P. (2001). Memoria, istoria, uitarea [Memory, History, Forgetting]. Timisoara: Editura Amarcord.

Riga 2014 (2009). Force Majeure. Retrieved from https://www.riga.lv/media/dokumenti/ekg_2009_book_eng_FIN.pdf

Sacco, P., Blessi, T. (2009). The Social Viability of Culture-led Urban Transformation Processes: Evidence from the Bicocca District. Urban Studies, 45. 1115-1135.

Sacco, P., Ferilli, G., Blessi, T. (2013). Understanding culture-led local development: A critique of alternative theoretical explanations. Urban studies. 1-16.

Searle, J. (1995). The Construction of Social Reality. New York: Free Press.

Selection Panel (2011). Selection of the European Capital of Culture for 2016 in Poland. Final Selection report. Warsaw. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/creative-europe/actions/documents/ecoc/2016/panel-poland_en.pdf.

Selection Panel (2009a). Final Report of the Selection Panel following the final selection meeting. Riga. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/creative-europe/actions/documents/ecoc/2014/panel-latvia_en.pdf.

Selection Panel (2009b) Designation of a European Capital of Culture for 2014 Pre-selection report. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/creative-europe/actions/documents/ecoc/2014/preselection-report-latvia_en.pdf.

Selection Panel (2009c). Designation of a European Capital of Culture for 2015 in the Czech Republic. Selection Panel Pre-selection report, Prague. Retrieved from http://www.mkcr.cz/assets/evropska-unie/evropske-hlavni-mesto-kultury/Preselection-report-CZ_2015_EN.pdf.

Selection Panel (2010a). Selection of the European Capital of Culture for 2015 in the Czech Republic. Final Selection report. Prague. Retrieved from http://www.mkcr.cz/assets/evropska-unie/evropske-hlavni-mesto-kultury/Final-Selection-Report_ECOC-2015-CZ_EN.pdf.

Selection Panel (2010b). Designation of the European Capital of Culture 2016. Selection Panel Report on Pre-selection. Warsaw. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/creative-europe/actions/documents/ecoc/2016/preselection-poland_en.pdf.

Sereda, V. (2009). Politics of Memory and Urban Landscape: The Case of Lviv after World War II (1). Vienna: Institute for Human Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.iwm.at/read-listen-watch/transit-online/politics-of-memory-and-urban-landscape.

The Monitoring and Advisory Panel for the European Capital of Culture (2015). Report on the 2nd Monitoring and Advisory Meeting for the European Capitals of Culture 2016. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/creative-europe/actions/documents/ecoc/2016/second-monitoring_en.pdf.

The Monitoring and Advisory Panel for the European Capital of Culture (2013). Report on the 1st Monitoring and Advisory Meeting for the European Capitals of Culture 2016. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/creative-europe/actions/documents/ecoc/2016/first-monitoring_en.pdf.

The Monitoring and Advisory Panel for the European Capital of Culture (2014). Report on the 2nd Monitoring and Advisory Meeting for the European Capitals of Culture 2015. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/culture/news/2014/documents/2015-ecoc-2nd-monitoring-report-final_en.pdf.

The Monitoring and Advisory Panel for the European Capital of Culture (2012). Report on the 1st Monitoring and Advisory Meeting for the European Capitals of Culture 2015. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/culture/news/2014/documents/2015-ecoc-2nd-monitoring-report-final_en.pdf.

The Monitoring and Advisory Panel for the European Capital of Culture (2013). Report on the 2nd Monitoring and Advisory Meeting for the European Capitals of Culture 2014. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/creative-europe/actions/documents/ecoc/2014/second-monitoring-report_en.pdf.

The Monitoring and Advisory Panel for the European Capital of Culture (2011). Report on the 1st Monitoring and Advisory Meeting for the European Capitals of Culture 2014. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/creative-europe/actions/documents/ecoc/2014/first-monitoring-report_en.pdf.

Treaty establishing the European Community (Maastricht Treaty, Amsterdam consolidated version) (1997). Official Journal, 340. 0245.

Ulldemolins, J. R. (2014). Culture and Authenticity in Urban Regeneration Processes: Place Branding in Central Barcelona. Urban Studies, 51-14. 3026-3045.

Wendt, A. (1999). Social Theory of International Politics. Cambridge: CUP.

Wroclaw 2016 (2011). Spaces for beauty revisisted. Retrieved from http://www.wroclaw.pl/files/ESK/application_revisited_en.pdf.

Young, C., Kaczmarek, S. (2008). The Socialist Past and Postsocialist Urban Identity in Central and Eastern Europe: The case of Lodz, Poland. European Urban and Regional Studies, 15(1). 53-70.

Zukin, S. (1995). The Cultures of cities. Malden and Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Published
2020-01-02
How to Cite
Turșie, C. (2020). The unwanted past and urban regeneration of Communist heritage cities. Case study: European Capitals of Culture (ECoC) Riga 2014, Pilsen 2015 and Wroclaw 2016. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 6(2), 122-138. https://doi.org/10.15503/jecs20152.122.138