Equity Related Concerns: Impact of Private tutoring in India

  • Harshita Sharma National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration 17-B, Sri Aurobindo Marg, NCERT Campus, New Delhi, Delhi-110016, India https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9132-8148
Keywords: parental involvement, school education, private coaching, private tutoring, private supplementary tutoring, equitable access


Aim. The paper attempts to explore the impact ofrivate tutoring in light of the equity-related concerns especially in the context of the Indian society. Private tutoring is a phenomenon that has been an intrinsic part of the Indian education system since the 1980s.

Methods. The paper is an outcome of the Masters of Philosophy dissertation work of the scholar submitted to National University of Education Planning and Administration, Delhi, India.

Results. The structure of private tutoring is such that it mimics the regular school curriculum and modifies itself to match the needs of the school and the children. Any changes in the regular school curriculum bring a change in its supplement as well. It thus behaves like a shadow of the regular schools. Though private tutoring was believed to enhance learning opportunities of weak students, it has now become a 'parity of prestige' issue.

Conclusion. The expansion of tutoring has begun to deepen the inequalities already prevalent in the stratified schooling system and society at large.

Author Biography

Harshita Sharma, National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration 17-B, Sri Aurobindo Marg, NCERT Campus, New Delhi, Delhi-110016, India

PhD student


ASER Centre (2013). Annual Status of Education Report. New Delhi.

Azam, M. (2016). Private tutoring: evidence from India. Review of Development Economics, 20(4), 739-761.

Banks, O. (2013). Parity and prestige in English secondary education. Routledge.

Bray, M. (1999). The shadow education system: private tutoring and its implications for planners. Paris: International Institute of Educational Planning. UNESCO.

Bray, M. (2003). Adverse Effects of Private Supplementary Tutoring: Dimension, Implications and Government Responses. Paris: International Instituteof Educational Planning, UNESCO.

Bray, M. (2009). Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government

Polices for What Private Tutoring? Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

Bray, M., & Lykins, C. (2012). Shadow Education Private Supplementary Tutoring and Its Implications for Policy Makers in Asia. CERC Monograph Series in Comparative and International Education and Development No.9, (Asian Development Bank, 2012). Retrieved from http:// www.adb.org (D.O.R. 28/12/2013 08:39pm).

Dang, H. A., & Rogers H. F. (2008). The Growing Phenomenon of Private Tutoring: Does it Deepen Human Capital, Widen Inequalities, or Waste Resources?. The World Bank Research Observer, 23 (2), 2008. Retrieved from http://www.siteresources.worldbank. org (D.O.R.12/12/2011 9:15pm).

Das, U. (2015). Private coaching and the impact of the rural employment guarantee programme on it: Evidence from West Bengal, India.

David, M. (2007). Equity and diversity: towards a sociology of higher education for the twenty‐first century?. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 28(5), 675-690.

Davies, S. (2004). School choice by default? Understanding the demand for private tutoring in Canada. American Journal of Education, 110(3), 233-255.

Devine, F. (2004). Class practices: How parents help their children get good jobs. Cambridge University Press.

Ireson, J., & Rushforth, K. (2014). Why do parents employ private tutors for their children?: Exploring psychological factors that influence demand in England Journal for educational research online, 6(1), 12.

Jeffrey, C., Jeffery P., & Jeffery R. (2004). “A Useless Thing!” or “Nectar of the Gods?” The Cultural Production of Education and Young Men's Struggles for Respect in Liberalizing North India. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 94.961-981.10.1111/j.1467- 8306.2004.00443.x.

Kotaky, R., & Hazarika, M. (2016). IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR- JRME) e-ISSN: 2320–7388, p-ISSN: 2320–737 Volume VI, Issue 5 Ver. III (September - Oct 2016), PP19-25 www.iosrjournals.org. Retrieved from http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr- jrme/papers/Vol-6%20Issue-5/Version 3/D0605031925.pdf (D.O.R. 25/03/2016 2.52pm)

Kumari, A. (2015). A study of growth of secondary education in Delhi. InternationalJournal of Social Science Research, 3(1), 1-15.

Majumdar, M. (2014). The shadow school system and new class divisions in India. TRG Poverty and Education Working Paper Series Paper, 2.

Makworo, G. W. (2012). How can teachers teach effectively without extra tuition? (Unpublished term paper, Kenyatta University).

Mohanty, T. R. (2017). The Socio-Psychological Context of Private Tuition - The Indian Experience. Journal of Educational Planning and Administration, Volume XXXI, No. 1, January 2017, pp. 17- 28.

Nafula, N. N. (2002). Achieving a sustainable universal primary Education through debt. (Unpublished PHD. thesis).

Nanda, P. K. (2016). Private Tuition thrives in India: NSSO survey. Live mint e- paper, 2016. Retrieved from http://epaper.livemint.com/epaper/viewer.aspx (D.O.R. 23/02/2016 9:04 pm).

Rani, G. (2007). Secondary Education in India: Determinants of Development and Performance”, NUEPA, 2007. Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net (D.O.R. 27/07/2015 5.56 pm)

Sancho, D. (2015). Youth, Class and Education in Urban India: The year that can break or make you. Routledge.

SCERT, West Bengal. Implications of Private Tutoring in west Bengal-A Report, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.scertwestbengal.org ( D.O.R. 25/11/2013 7.52pm)

Snehi, N. (2010). Private Tuition and its Implications on Quality Secondary Education. Journal of Indian Education, Vol. XXXVI, No. 1, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.ncert.nic.in (D.O.R. 27/07/2015 5.44pm) .

Stevenson, D., & Baker, D. (1992). Shadow education and allocation in formal schooling: transition to university in Japan. American Journal of sociology, 97(6), 1639-57

Sujatha, K., & Geetha Rani P. (2011). Management of Secondary Education in India (New Delhi: Shipra Publications, 2011).

Tansel, A., & Bircan, F. (2006). “Demand for Education in Turkey: A Tobit Analysis of Private Tutoring Expenditures”. Economics of Education Review, 25(3): pp. 303-313.

Wiseman, W. (2013). “Foreword.” In Out of the Shadows: The Global Intensification of Supplementary Education, ed. Janice Aurini, Scott Davies, and Julian Dierkes. Bingley: Emerald.

How to Cite
Sharma, H. (2019). Equity Related Concerns: Impact of Private tutoring in India. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 10(2), 299-308. https://doi.org/10.15503/jecs20192.299.308