The Effect of Digital School Culture on Science Education and Scientific Literacy: A Scoping Review


  • Sanita Litina Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Latvia, Imantas 7. līnija 1, Rīga, LV -1083, Latvia
  • Zanda Rubene Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Latvia, Imantas 7. līnija 1, Rīga, LV -1083, Latvia



digital school culture, scientific literacy, digital literacy, science education, scoping review


Thesis. In today's education scene, the incorporation of digital technology in schools has brought about a significant change beyond conventional limits, promoting a new cultural mindset known as the digital school culture. The development of “digital school culture” is one of the most prominent examples of the fusion of digital culture and school culture. The convergence of digital culture and scientific competence is becoming more evident, encompassing not only the comprehension of scientific knowledge but also the ability to adapt to swiftly evolving technologies, employ creative thinking, solve problems, make informed decisions, and apply scientific reasoning to real-world scenarios. This scoping review aims to understand the impact of digital school culture on students' scientific literacy and science educational outcomes.

Concept. Digital school culture is the integration of digital technologies and educational practices in schools, involving the attitudes, behaviour, and practices of educators, students, and administrators. The key elements of digital school culture include strategy and leadership, educator preparedness, school preparedness, technological responsiveness, and digital pedagogy.

Results and conclusion. This scoping review critically examines 10 studies published between 2009 and 2022, with a primary focus on components of digital school culture in science education. The review reveals that digital learning systems, digital environments to support student learning, digital technologies and tools, a digital curriculum, and pedagogical practices involving digital technology significantly improve scientific literacy.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

  • Sanita Litina, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Latvia, Imantas 7. līnija 1, Rīga, LV -1083, Latvia

    Master of Public Health at Riga Stardiņš University. She is currently pursuing a PhD in educational sciences at the University of Latvia. She was awarded a scientific grant to develop her dissertation on factors affecting health care students' digital competence. She has gained experience as a manager and lecturer on multiple international educational and continuing education projects. She has also published several research articles in peer-reviewed journals. Her research interests include digital health and the study of digital skills in different target groups.

  • Zanda Rubene, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Latvia, Imantas 7. līnija 1, Rīga, LV -1083, Latvia

    Dr. Paed., is a professor of University of Latvia in philosophy of education, vice dean of the Faculty of Education Sciences and Psychology, Head of the Doctoral Study program “Education Sciences”. She is the expert in Education Sciences at the Council of Sciences of the Republic of Latvia. Her main research interests are philosophy of education, digital childhood, transversal competences and critical thinking, she has a projects and publications on this topic, participates in international scientific conferences. Author of the books "Critical Thinking in University Studies", "Introduction to Media Pedagogy" and "Digital Childhood". 


Al-Rsa'i, M. S. (2013). Promoting scientific literacy by using ICT in science teaching. International Education Studies, 6(9), 175-181.

Arksey, H. & O'Malley L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a Methodological Framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8(1), 19–32.

Alneyadi, S. S. (2019). Virtual Lab Implementation in Science Literacy: Emirati Science Teachers’ Perspectives. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 15(12), em1786.

Bowker, G. (2008). Structures of participation in digital culture. In J. Kargnis (Ed.), Structures of participation in digital culture (pp. 24- 36). Social Science Research Council.

Buckingham, D. (2008). Defining Digital Literacy. What do Young People Need to Know About Digital Media? In C. Lankshear & M. Knobel (Eds.), Digital Literacies: Concepts, Policies, and Practices (pp. 73-91). Peter Lang.

Calışkan, E. (2020). The effects of robotics programming on secondary school students’ problem-solving skills. World Journal on Educational Technology: Current Issues, 12(4), 217-230.

Cavas, B., Kesercioglu, T., Holbrook, J., Rannikmae, M., Ozdogru, E., & Gokler, F. (2012). The effects of robotics club on the students’ performance on science process & scientific creativity skills and perceptions on robots, human and society. In M. Moro & D. Alimisisi (Eds.), Proceedings of 3rd International Workshop Teaching Robotics, Teaching with Robotics Integrating Robotics in School Curriculum (pp. 40-50). AIP Publishing.

Chiu, W. K. (2021). Pedagogy of emerging technologies in chemical education during the era of digitalization and artificial intelligence: A systematic review. Education sciences, 11(11), 709.

Crompton, H. & Burke, D. (2015). School Culture for the Mobile Digital Age. Teaching & Learning Faculty Publications, 6(2), 208-223.

Crăciun, D. & Bunoiu, M. (2019). Digital Comics, a Visual Method for Reinvigorating Romanian Science Education. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, 11(4), 321-341.

Faraj, A. O. K. & Sharabi, W. A. N. (2021). Developing the digital culture among the students of educational faculties in Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University. International Journal of Higher Education, 10(3), 158-168.

Fazekas, N. (2021). Learning organizations and organizational digital competencies in the field of public education. In M. Baksa, N. Fazekas, & V. Harmat (Eds.), New Horizons in Business and Management Studies. Conference Proceedings (pp. 25-36). Corvinus University of Budapest.

Fives, H., Huebner, W., Birnbaum, A. S., & Nicolich, M. (2014). Developing a measure of scientific literacy for middle school students. Science Education, 98(4), 549-580.

Gere, Ch. (2002). Digital Culture. Reaktion Books.

Gurses, A., Gunes, K., Barin, T. B., Eroglu, Z., & Cozel, F. S. (2015). Relation between pre-service chemistry teachers’ science literacy levels and their some scientific process skills. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 197, 2395-2402.

Harrison, T. G., Shallcross, D. E., Heslop, W. J., Eastman, J. R., & Baldwin, A. J. (2009). Transferring Best Practice from Undergraduate Practical Teaching to Secondary Schools: The Dynamic Laboratory Manual. Acta Didactica Napocensia, 2(1), 1-8.

Hurd, P. D. (1998). Scientific literacy: new minds for changing world. Science Education, 8, 407-416.

Ifenthaler, D. & Egloffstein, M. (2020). Development and implementation of a maturity model of digital transformation. TechTrends, 64(2), 302–309.

Ilomäki, L. & Lakkala, M. (2018). Digital technology and practices for school improvement: Innovative digital school model. Research and practice in technology enhanced learning, 13(1), 1-32.

Karaca, F., Can, G., & Yildirim, S. (2013). A path model for technology integration into elementary school settings in Turkey. Computers & Education, 68(1), 353-365. Elsevier Ltd.

Korkman, N. & Metin, M. (2021). The Effect of Inquiry-Based Collaborative Learning and Inquiry-Based Online Collaborative Learning on Success and Permanent Learning of Students. Journal of Science Learning, 10(2), 45-57.

Lestari, S., Sugianto, S., & Setiawan, D. (2020). The Effectiveness of PBL Assisted by Digital Storytelling Media towards Science Literacy and Critical Thinking Skills. Journal of Primary Education, 9(4), 329-341.

National Research Council, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Board on Science Education, & Committee on a Conceptual Framework for New K-12 Science Education Standards. (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. National Academies Press.

Nurwahidah, N., Wilujeng, I., Jumadi, J., & Senam, S. (2017). The Effects of Project Based Learning Model with Android on Scientific Literacy and Digital Equipedness/ICT Literacy. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research, 36(7), 190-205.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2003). Literacy skills for the world of tomorrow – Further results from PISA 2003. OECD Publishing.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2017). PISA 2015 assessment and analytical framework: Science, reading, mathematic, financial literacy and collaborative problem solving revised edition. OECD Publishing.

Okada, A. (2013). Scientific literacy in the digital age: Tools, environments and resources for coinquiry. European Scientific Journal, 4, 263–274.

Putri, I. B. K. & Wulandari, F. (2022). Scientific literacy skill through digital media professional PDF flip-based book in elementary school. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 8(5), 2266–2271.

Risniawati, M., Serevina, V., & Delina, M. (2020). The development of E-learning media to improve students' science literacy skill in Senior High School. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1481, 012075.

Rubene, Z. (2018). Digital childhood: Some reflections from the point of view of philosophy of education. In L. Daniela (Ed.), Innovations, Technologies and Researches in Education, (pp. 64-77). University of Latvia.

Setyawan, R. (2022). Embracing the future: Digital school culture in Tabanan high schools. Kata Kita, 10(1), 141-148.

Sholikah, L. & Pertiwi, F. N. (2021). Analysis of Scientific Literacy Skills of Junior High School Students: A Case Study in Indonesia. Journal of Science Education and Teaching, 4(2), 84-90.

Suryanti, S., Widodo, W. & Yermiandhoko, Y. (2021). Gadget-Based Interactive Multimedia on Socio-Scientific Issues to Improve Elementary Students’ Scientific Literacy. International Journal of Instructional Media, 15(1), 56-69.

Turiman, P., Jizah, O., Adzliana, M. D., & Kamisah. (2012). Fostering the 21st century skill through scientific literacy and science process skill. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 59, 110-116.

Uzelac, A. & Cvjeticanin, B. (Eds.). (2016). Digital culture: The changing dynamics. Institute for International Relations.




How to Cite

Litina, S., & Rubene, Z. (2024). The Effect of Digital School Culture on Science Education and Scientific Literacy: A Scoping Review. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 15(1), 41-55.