Exploring Informal Vocational Training (IVT) and its Missing Accreditation Link with Formal Vocational, Technical and Professional Education and their Implications: A Sociological Study in a City of India


  • Rabiya Yaseen Bazaz Centre for Women’s Studies and Research, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2954-4728
  • Mohammad Akram Department of Sociology, Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh, Pin 202002, India




Informal vocational training (IVT), Vocational education and training (VET), technical and professional education, employment, structured inequalities


Aim. This empirical study aims to conceptualise the prevalence of Informal Vocational Training (IVT) in India. It also explores the missing link at accreditation level between IVTs and other formal vocational, technical and professional courses and depicts their implications in the occupational, economic, social and cultural lives of people.

Methods. This study was conducted in the Srinagar city of the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir in India. Both the survey method and the case method were used for collecting the primary data and applying triangulation methodologically.

Results. This study reveals that elites generally dominate in the prestigious technical and professional courses because of better accessibility and affordability, and that the vulnerable sections miss many of these opportunities. The vulnerable sections very often get the benefits of IVTs learnt outside the formal system in finding some employment, but such employment attracts lower prestige and income than what they get through formal technical and professional courses. IVTs find no academic recognition in the existing accreditation system, and so people culturally and socially associated with these IVTs continue to remain deprived.

Conclusion. There is a need to develop a credit-based link between IVTs and formal vocational, technical and professional courses so that the skills learnt through IVTs could get transferred to the formal system and attract better occupational and economic rewards. The findings are relevant for both developing and developed societies, but more particularly for societies having a considerable presence of informal economy because IVTs exist more within these economies.


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Author Biographies

  • Rabiya Yaseen Bazaz, Centre for Women’s Studies and Research, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

    Dr. Rabiya Yaseen Bazaz has completed her doctoral degree (Ph.D.) from Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. She has started working as Lecturer at Centre for Women's Studies and Research, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India. She has keen academic interest on issues related to gender, education, employment and work. She has many peer reviewed research papers to her credit, published in very reputed journals, some of which are listed in 'Web of sciences' and 'Scopus' also. She presented her research papers at an international conference organised by British Sociological Association (BSA) held at Belfast (UK) and has also presented research papers at many other international and national platforms. She has membership of many prestigious international and national academic associations.

  • Mohammad Akram, Department of Sociology, Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh, Pin 202002, India

    Prof. Mohammad Akram is Professor of Sociology at Department of Sociology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). He has authored three books (Sociology of Health 2014; Sociology of Sanitation 2015; Tribal Health 2008), co-authored one book (Education in Contemporary India: Sociological Discourses), edited two books and co-edited one book (Development, Health and Globalisation 2015) previously. He has published numerous research papers in Scopus and Web of Science indexed Journals. Prof. Akram is interested in exploring social determinants of health, sanitation, employment and education focussing on equity, social policy and inclusive development. His research is helpful in developing parameters for human, social and sustainable development of marginalized groups including tribes, scheduled castes, minorities, women and migrant workers. He is teaching PG and UG students for more than twenty years and has supervised several Ph.D. and M.Phil. students. 


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How to Cite

Bazaz, R. Y., & Akram, M. (2022). Exploring Informal Vocational Training (IVT) and its Missing Accreditation Link with Formal Vocational, Technical and Professional Education and their Implications: A Sociological Study in a City of India. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 13(2), 317-340. https://doi.org/10.15503/jecs2022.2.317.340