Exploring achievement goals tendencies in students: the link between achievement goals and types of motivation


  • Albulene Grajcevci Faculty of Education, University “Isa Boletini” Mitrovice Rr. Ukshin Kovacica, Mitrovice, Republic of Kosove
  • Arif Shala Faculty of Social Sciences, AAB College Rr. Elez Berisha Nr. 56, Prishtine, Republic of Kosove




Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, achievement goals, Kosove


Aim. This research explored the link between motivation types and achievement goals. More specifically the research focuses on exploring goal endorsements among learners as well as their correlation with motivation.
Methods. The sample of 600 participants was gathered among students enrolled in private (N= 156) institutions and public universities (N=444). The study was a quantitative one and utilized the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R) as well as the Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation scales (Lepper, Corpus, &Iyengar, 2005).
Results. The results stipulate that achievement goals are closely linked to situation factors such as university and department. Supporting the premise of fluidity of goal constructs. Ultimately, mastery approach, performance approach and performance avoidance goals did not discriminate between types of motivation, with three goals being positively
correlated to both types of motivation. Mastery avoidance goals were not correlated to any of the motivation types (intrinsic or extrinsic), but they showed a tendency to be negatively correlated to extrinsic motivation, a correlation that was not significant.
Conclusion. Present research reveals that there are significant differences among participants in goal adoption according to year of study. Specifically, as expected first year students were significantly more mastery oriented than participants attending the second and third year of studies. Gender differences were also evident, with female students reporting higher levels of mastery orientation compared to male students. Finally, the inconclusive results regarding motivation types and achievement goals need future studies to reestablish the stipulated link


Download data is not yet available.


Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom. Students’ learning strategies

and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 260-267.

Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational

Psychology, 84, 261-271.

Barron, K. E., &Harackiewicz, J. M. (2001). Achievement goals and optimal motivation:

Testing multiple goal models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 706-722.

Dweck, C. S., & Elliot, E.S. (1983). Achievement motivation. In P. Mussen& E. M. Hatherington

(Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology (pp. 643- 691). New York: Wiley.

Dweck, C. S. and Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality.

Psychological Review, 95, 256-273.

Elliot, E. S., & Dweck, C. S. (1988). Goals: An approach to motivation and achievement. Journal

of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 5-12.

Elliot, A. J., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and

intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70,


Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 X 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality

and Social Psychology, 80 (3), 501- 519.

Elliot, A. L., & Murayama, K. (2008). On the measurement of achievement goals: Critique

illustration, and application. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(3), 613-628.

Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K.E., Carter S.M., Lehto, A.T., & Elliot, A. J. (1997). Predictors and

consequences of achievement goals in the college classroom: Maintaining interest and making

the grade. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1284-1295.

Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Tauer, J. M., Carter, M. S., & Elliot, A. J. (2000). Short-term

and long-term consequences of achievement goals: Predicting Interest and Performance over

time. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 316-330.

Harackiewicz,J. M., Barron, K. E., Tauer, J. M., & Elliot, A. J. (2002). Predicting success in college:

A longitudinal study of achievement goals and ability measures as predictors of interest

and performance from freshman year through graduation. Journal of Educational Psychology

(3), 562- 2002.

Hulleman, C. S., Schrager, S. M., Bodmann, S. M., &Harackiewicz, J. M. (2010). A meta analytic

review of achievement goal measure: Different labels for the same constructs or different

constructs with similar labels? Psychological Bulletin, 136(3), 422-449.

Kaplan, A., &Maehr, M. L. (2007). The contributions and prospects of goal orientation theory.

Educational Psychology Review, 19 , 141-184.

Leea, J. Q., McInerneyb, D. M., Liemc, G. A., &Ortigad, Y. P. (2010). The relationship between

future goals and achievement goals: An intrinsic-extrinsic motivation perspective. Conemporary

Educational Psychology ,35(4), 264-279.

Lepper, M. R., Corpus, J. H., &Iyengar, S. S. (2005). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations

in the classroom: Age differences and academic correlations. Journal of Educational

Psychology, 97(2), 184-196.

Linnenbrink, E. A., &Pintrich, P. R. (2002). Achievement Goal Theory and affect: An asymmetrical

bidirectional model. Educational Psychologist, 37, 69-78.

Linnenbrik-Garcia, L., Tyson, D. F., &Patall, E. A. (2008). When are achievement goal orientation

beneficial for achievement? A closer look at moderating factors. International Review of

Social Psychology, 21, 19070.

Maehr, M. L., &Zusho, A. (2009). Achievement goal theory: The past, present, and future. In

K.R. Wentzel& A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation in school (pp. 1–104). New York:

Taylor Francis.

Nicholls, J. G., Cheung, P. C, Lauer, J., & Patashnick, M. (1989). Individual differences in academic

motivation: Perceived ability, goals, beliefs, and values. Learning and Individual Differences,

, 63-84.

Nolen, S. B., & Haladyna, T. M. (1990). Personal and environmental influences on students’

beliefs about effective study strategies. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 15, 116-130.

Rawsthorne, L. J., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A meta-

-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3(4), 326-344.

Ryan R. M., & Deci E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation,

social development, and well being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.

Tamir, M., & Diener, E. (2008). Approach-avoidance goals and well-being: One size does not

fit all. In A. J. Elliot (Ed.), Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation (pp. 415-430). Mahwah,

NJ: Erlbaum.




How to Cite

Grajcevci, A., & Shala, A. (2021). Exploring achievement goals tendencies in students: the link between achievement goals and types of motivation. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 12(1), 265–282. https://doi.org/10.15503/jecs2021.1.265.282