Exploring achievement goals tendencies in students: the link between achievement goals and types of motivation
Keywords:Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, achievement goals, Kosove
Aim. This research explored the link between motivation types and achievement goals. More specifically the research focuses on exploring goal endorsements among learners as well as their correlation with motivation.
Methods. The sample of 600 participants was gathered among students enrolled in private (N= 156) institutions and public universities (N=444). The study was a quantitative one and utilized the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R) as well as the Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation scales (Lepper, Corpus, &Iyengar, 2005).
Results. The results stipulate that achievement goals are closely linked to situation factors such as university and department. Supporting the premise of fluidity of goal constructs. Ultimately, mastery approach, performance approach and performance avoidance goals did not discriminate between types of motivation, with three goals being positively
correlated to both types of motivation. Mastery avoidance goals were not correlated to any of the motivation types (intrinsic or extrinsic), but they showed a tendency to be negatively correlated to extrinsic motivation, a correlation that was not significant.
Conclusion. Present research reveals that there are significant differences among participants in goal adoption according to year of study. Specifically, as expected first year students were significantly more mastery oriented than participants attending the second and third year of studies. Gender differences were also evident, with female students reporting higher levels of mastery orientation compared to male students. Finally, the inconclusive results regarding motivation types and achievement goals need future studies to reestablish the stipulated link
Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom. Students’ learning strategies
and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 260-267.
Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 84, 261-271.
Barron, K. E., &Harackiewicz, J. M. (2001). Achievement goals and optimal motivation:
Testing multiple goal models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 706-722.
Dweck, C. S., & Elliot, E.S. (1983). Achievement motivation. In P. Mussen& E. M. Hatherington
(Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology (pp. 643- 691). New York: Wiley.
Dweck, C. S. and Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality.
Psychological Review, 95, 256-273.
Elliot, E. S., & Dweck, C. S. (1988). Goals: An approach to motivation and achievement. Journal
of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 5-12.
Elliot, A. J., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and
intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70,
Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 X 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 80 (3), 501- 519.
Elliot, A. L., & Murayama, K. (2008). On the measurement of achievement goals: Critique
illustration, and application. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(3), 613-628.
Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K.E., Carter S.M., Lehto, A.T., & Elliot, A. J. (1997). Predictors and
consequences of achievement goals in the college classroom: Maintaining interest and making
the grade. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1284-1295.
Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Tauer, J. M., Carter, M. S., & Elliot, A. J. (2000). Short-term
and long-term consequences of achievement goals: Predicting Interest and Performance over
time. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 316-330.
Harackiewicz,J. M., Barron, K. E., Tauer, J. M., & Elliot, A. J. (2002). Predicting success in college:
A longitudinal study of achievement goals and ability measures as predictors of interest
and performance from freshman year through graduation. Journal of Educational Psychology
(3), 562- 2002.
Hulleman, C. S., Schrager, S. M., Bodmann, S. M., &Harackiewicz, J. M. (2010). A meta analytic
review of achievement goal measure: Different labels for the same constructs or different
constructs with similar labels? Psychological Bulletin, 136(3), 422-449.
Kaplan, A., &Maehr, M. L. (2007). The contributions and prospects of goal orientation theory.
Educational Psychology Review, 19 , 141-184.
Leea, J. Q., McInerneyb, D. M., Liemc, G. A., &Ortigad, Y. P. (2010). The relationship between
future goals and achievement goals: An intrinsic-extrinsic motivation perspective. Conemporary
Educational Psychology ,35(4), 264-279.
Lepper, M. R., Corpus, J. H., &Iyengar, S. S. (2005). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations
in the classroom: Age differences and academic correlations. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 97(2), 184-196.
Linnenbrink, E. A., &Pintrich, P. R. (2002). Achievement Goal Theory and affect: An asymmetrical
bidirectional model. Educational Psychologist, 37, 69-78.
Linnenbrik-Garcia, L., Tyson, D. F., &Patall, E. A. (2008). When are achievement goal orientation
beneficial for achievement? A closer look at moderating factors. International Review of
Social Psychology, 21, 19070.
Maehr, M. L., &Zusho, A. (2009). Achievement goal theory: The past, present, and future. In
K.R. Wentzel& A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation in school (pp. 1–104). New York:
Nicholls, J. G., Cheung, P. C, Lauer, J., & Patashnick, M. (1989). Individual differences in academic
motivation: Perceived ability, goals, beliefs, and values. Learning and Individual Differences,
Nolen, S. B., & Haladyna, T. M. (1990). Personal and environmental influences on students’
beliefs about effective study strategies. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 15, 116-130.
Rawsthorne, L. J., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A meta-
-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3(4), 326-344.
Ryan R. M., & Deci E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation,
social development, and well being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
Tamir, M., & Diener, E. (2008). Approach-avoidance goals and well-being: One size does not
fit all. In A. J. Elliot (Ed.), Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation (pp. 415-430). Mahwah,
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Albulene Grajcevci, Arif Shala
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. All authors agree for publishing their email adresses, affiliations and short bio statements with their articles during the submission process.