The dark side of social media: Associations between the Dark Triad of personality, self-disclosure online and selfie-related behaviours

  • Elżbieta Sanecka University of Silesia in Katowice, Institute of Psychology, M. Grażyńskiego 53, 40-126 Katowice, Poland
Keywords: Dark Triad, Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, self-disclosure online, perceived controllability, selfies, social media

Abstract

The present study investigated the relations between the Dark Triad personality traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy), distinct dimensions of self-disclosure online (i.e., honesty, amount, positive valence, and intent) and selfie related-behaviours (taking, posting and editing selfies). The results indicated, that all three Dark Triad components were positively correlated with posting and editing selfies on social networking sites (SNSs). However, multiple regression analysis demonstrated that only narcissism predicted selfie-related behaviours. Narcissism and Machiavellianism were positively related to the amount of personal information disclosed online and the tendency to self-disclose intentionally in computer-mediated communication (CMC). Moreover, we found no significant correlations between the perceived controllability of Internet communication and two types of self-promotion in the Internet (self-disclosure online and selfie-related behaviours). Our findings demonstrate the importance of analysing the "dark" personality traits in the context of self-promotional behaviours in social media.

References

1. Abell, L., & Brewer, G. (2014). Machiavellianism, self-monitoring, self-promotion and relational aggression on Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 36, 258-262.
2. Attrill, A. (2012). Self-disclosure online. In: Y. Zheng (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cyber Behavior (pp. 855-872). New York: IGI Global.
3. Aviram, I., & Amichai-Hamburger, Y. (2005). Online Infidelity: Aspects of Dyadic Satisfaction, Self-Disclosure, and Narcissism. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10(3). doi: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2005.tb00249.x.
4. Baker, R.K., & White, K.M. (2010). Predicting adolescents’ use of social networking sites from an extended theory of planned behaviour perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1591-1597.
5. Bareket-Bojmel, L., Moran, S., & Shahar, G. (2016). Strategic self-presentation on Facebook: Personal motives and audience response to online behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 788-795.
6. Błachnio, A., Przepiórka, A., & Rudnicka, P. (2016). Narcissism and self-esteem as predictors of dimensions of Facebook use. Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 296-301.
7. Book, A., Visser, B.A., & Volk, A.A. (2015). Unpacking “evil”: Claiming the core of the Dark Triad. Personality and Individual Differences, 73, 29-38.
8. Brewer, G., Abell, L., & Lyons, M. (2014). Machiavellianism, competition and self-disclosure in friendship. Individual Differences Research, 12(1), 1-7.
9. Brunet, P.M., & Schmidt, L.A. (2007). Is shyness context specific? Relation between shyness and online self-disclosure with and without a live webcam in young adults. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(4), 938-945.
10. Buckels, E.E., Jones, D.N., & Paulhus, D.L. (2013). Behavioral confirmation of everyday sadism. Psychological Science. doi: 10.1177/0956797613490749.
11. Buckels, E.E., Trapnell, P.D., & Paulhus, D.L. (2014). Trolls just want to have fun. Personality and Individual Differences, 67, 97-102.
12. Buffardi, L.E., & Campbell, W.K. (2008). Narcissism and social networking web sites. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(10), 1303-1314.
13. Cain, N. M., Pincus, A. L., & Ansell, E. B. (2008). Narcissism at the crossroads: Phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(4), 638-656.
14. Campbell, W.K., & Miller, J.D.(2011). The handbook of narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorders: Theoretical approaches, empirical findings and treatments. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons.
15. Carpenter, C.J. (2012). Narcissism on Facebook: Self-promotional and anti-social behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(4), 482-486.
16. Carre, J.R., & Jones, D.N. (2016). The impact of social support and coercion salience on Dark Triad decision making. Personality and Individual Differences, 94, 92-95.
17. Chen, B., & Marcus, J. (2012). Students’ self-presentation on Facebook: An examination of personality and self-construal factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(6), 2091-2099.
18. Christie, R., & Geis, F.L. (1970). Studies in Machiavellianism. New York: Academic Press.
19. Christofides, E., Muise, A., & Desmarais, S. (2009). Information disclosure and control on Facebook: are they two sides of the same coin or two different processes?. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(3), 341-345.
20. Chua, T.H.H., & Chang, L. (2016). Follow me and like my beautiful selfies: Singapore teenage girls’ engagement in self-presentation and peer comparison on social media. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 190-197.
21. Czarna, A.Z., Jonason, P.K., Dufner, M., & Kossowska, M. (2016). The Dirty Dozen Scale: Validation of a Polish version and extension of the nomological net. Frontiers in Psychology, 7. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00445.
22. Davis, K. (2012). Friendship 2.0: Adolescents' experiences of belonging and self-disclosure online. Journal of Adolescence, 35(6), 1527-1536.
23. Dhir, A., Pallesen, S., Torsheim, T., & Andreassen, C.S. (2016). Do age and gender differences exist in selfie-related behaviours?. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 549-555.
24. Döring, N., Reif, A., & Poeschl, S. (2016). How gender-stereotypical are selfies? A content analysis and comparison with magazine adverts. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 955-962.
25. Egan, V., Chan, S., & Shorter, G.W. (2014). The Dark Triad, happiness and subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 67, 17-22.
26. Ellison, N., Heino, R., & Gibbs, J. (2006). Managing impressions online: Self-presentation processes in the online dating environment. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(2), 415-441.
27. Fox, J., & Rooney, M.C. (2015). The Dark Triad and trait self-objectification as predictors of men’s use and self-presentation behaviors on social networking sites. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 161-165.
28. Furnham, A., Richards, S.C., & Paulhus, D.L. (2013). The Dark Triad of personality: A 10 year review. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(3), 199-216.
29. Garcia, D., & Sikström, S. (2014). The dark side of Facebook: Semantic representations of status updates predict the Dark Triad of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 67, 92-96.
30. Gibbs, J.L., Ellison, N.B., & Heino, R.D. (2006). Self-presentation in online personals the role of anticipated future interaction, self-disclosure, and perceived success in Internet dating. Communication Research, 33(2), 152-177.
31. Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.
32. Goodboy, A.K., & Martin, M.M. (2015). The personality profile of a cyberbully: Examining the Dark Triad. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 1-4.
33. Gosling, S.D., Augustine, A.A., Vazire, S., Holtzman, N., & Gaddis, S. (2011). Manifestations of personality in online social networks: Self-reported Facebook-related behaviors and observable profile information. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(9), 483-488.
34. Greene, K., Derlega, V.L., & Mathews, A. (2006). Self-disclosure in personal relationships. In: A. Vangelisti, & D. Perlman (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of personal relationships (pp. 1268-1328). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
35. Halpern, D., Valenzuela, S., & Katz, J.E. (2016). “Selfie-ists” or “Narci-selfiers”?: A cross-lagged panel analysis of selfie taking and narcissism. Personality and Individual Differences, 97, 98-101.
36. Hare, R.D., & Neumann, C.S. (2008). Psychopathy as a clinical and empirical construct. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 217-246.
37. Joinson, A.N., & Paine, C.B. (2007). Self-disclosure, privacy and the Internet. In: A.N. Joinson, K.Y.A. McKenna, T. Postmes, & U-D. Reips (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Internet Psychology (pp. 237-252). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
38. Joinson, A.N., Paine, C., Buchanan, T., & Reips, U.D. (2008). Measuring self-disclosure online: Blurring and non-response to sensitive items in web-based surveys. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), 2158-2171.
39. Jonason, P.K., & Luévano, V.X. (2013). Walking the thin line between efficiency and accuracy: Validity and structural properties of the Dirty Dozen. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(1), 76-81.
40. Jonason, P.K., Koenig, B.L., & Tost, J. (2010). Living a fast life. The Dark Triad and Life History Theory. Human Nature, 21(4), 428-442.
41. Jonason, P.K., Li, N.P., & Teicher, E.A. (2010). Who is James Bond? The Dark Triad as an agentic social style. Individual Differences Research, 8(2), 111.
42. Jonason, P.K., Li, N.P., Webster, G.D., & Schmitt, D.P. (2009). The dark triad: Facilitating a short‐term mating strategy in men. European Journal of Personality, 23(1), 5-18.
43. Jonason, P.K., Webster, G.D., Schmitt, D.P., Li, N.P., & Crysel, L. (2012). The antihero in popular culture: Life history theory and the dark triad personality traits. Review of General Psychology, 16(2), 192.
44. Jonason, P.K., & Webster, G.D. (2010).The Dirty Dozen: A concise measure of the Dark Triad. Psychological Assessment, 22, 420–432. doi:10.1037/a0019265.
45. Jones, D.N., & Figueredo, A.J. (2013). The core of darkness: Uncovering the heart of the Dark Triad. European Journal of Personality, 27(6), 521-531.
46. Jones, D.N., & Paulhus, D.L. (2009). Machiavellianism. In: M.R. Leary, & R.H. Hoyle (Eds.), Individual differences in social behavior (pp. 93-108). New York: Guilford.
47. Jones, D.N., & Paulhus, D.L. (2011). The role of impulsivity in the Dark Triad of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(5), 679-682.
48. Kim, E., Lee, J.A., Sung, Y., & Choi, S.M. (2016). Predicting selfie-posting behavior on social networking sites: An extension of theory of planned behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 62, 116-123.
49. LeBreton, J.M., Binning, J.F., & Adorno, A.J. (2006). Subclinical psychopaths. In: D.L. Segal, & J.C. Thomas (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of personality and psychopathology. Vol. 1. Personality and everyday functioning (pp. 388-411). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
50. Ledbetter, A.M., Mazer, J.P., DeGroot, J.M., Meyer, K.R., Mao, Y., & Swafford, B. (2010). Attitudes toward online social connection and self-disclosure as predictors of Facebook communication and relational closeness. Communication Research, 38(1), 27–53.
51. Lee, E., Ahn, J., & Kim, Y.J. (2014). Personality traits and self-presentation at Facebook. Personality and Individual Differences, 69, 162-167.
52. Liu, C., Ang, R.P., & Lwin, M.O. (2013). Cognitive, personality, and social factors associated with adolescents' online personal information disclosure. Journal of Adolescence, 36(4), 629-638.
53. Maples, J.L., Lamkin, J., & Miller, J.D. (2014). A test of two brief measures of the Dark Triad: The Dirty Dozen and Short Dark Triad. Psychological Assessment, 26(1), 326-331.
54. McDonald, M.M., Donnellan, M.B., & Navarrete, C.D. (2012). A life history approach to understanding the Dark Triad. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(5), 601-605.
55. Mehdizadeh, S. (2010). Self-presentation 2.0: Narcissism and self-esteem on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13(4), 357-364.
56. Moon, J.H., Lee, E., Lee, J.A., Choi, T.R., & Sung, Y. (2016). The role of narcissism in self-promotion on Instagram. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 22-25.
57. Morf, C.C., & Rhodewalt, F. (2001). Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism: A dynamic self-regulatory processing model. Psychological Inquiry, 12(4), 177-196.
58. Nadkarni, A., & Hofmann, S.G. (2012). Why do people use Facebook?. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(3), 243-249.
59. O'Connor, E.M., & Simms, C.M. (1990). Self-revelation as manipulation: The effects of sex and Machiavellianism on self-disclosure. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 18(1), 95-99.
60. Ong, E.Y., Ang, R.P., Ho, J.C., Lim, J.C., Goh, D.H., Lee, C.S., & Chua, A.Y. (2011). Narcissism, extraversion and adolescents’ self-presentation on Facebook. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(2), 180-185.
61. Pabian, S., De Backer, C.J., & Vandebosch, H. (2015). Dark Triad personality traits and adolescent cyber-aggression. Personality and Individual Differences, 75, 41-46.
62. Park, N., Jin, B., & Jin, S.A.A. (2011). Effects of self-disclosure on relational intimacy in Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(5), 1974-1983.
63. Paulhus, D.L., & Williams, K.M. (2002). The dark triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 36(6), 556-563.
64. Peter, J., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2006). Research note: Individual differences in perceptions of Internet communication. European Journal of Communication, 21(2), 213-226.
65. Qiu, L., Lu, J., Yang, S., Qu, W., & Zhu, T. (2015). What does your selfie say about you?. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 443-449.
66. Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(5), 890.
67. Rauthmann, J.F., & Kolar, G.P. (2012). How ‘‘dark’’ are the Dark Triad traits? Examining the perceived darkness of Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and Psychopathy. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(7), 884–889.
68. Rosenberg, J., & Egbert, N. (2011). Online impression management: Personality traits and concerns for secondary goals as predictors of self‐presentation tactics on Facebook. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 17(1), 1-18.
69. Schouten, A.P., Valkenburg, P.M., & Peter, J. (2007). Precursors and underlying processes of adolescents' online self-disclosure: Developing and testing an “Internet-attribute-perception” model. Media Psychology, 10(2), 292-315.
70. Seidman, G. (2013). Self-presentation and belonging on Facebook: How personality influences social media use and motivations. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(3), 402-407.
71. Sorokowska, A., Oleszkiewicz, A., Frackowiak, T., Pisanski, K., Chmiel, A., & Sorokowski, P. (2016). Selfies and personality: Who posts self-portrait photographs?. Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 119-123.
72. Sorokowski, P., Sorokowska, A., Frackowiak, T., Karwowski, M., Rusicka, I., & Oleszkiewicz, A. (2016). Sex differences in online selfie posting behaviors predict histrionic personality scores among men but not women. Computers in Human Behavior, 59, 368-373.
73. Sorokowski, P., Sorokowska, A., Oleszkiewicz, A., Frackowiak, T., Huk, A., & Pisanski, K. (2015). Selfie posting behaviors are associated with narcissism among men. Personality and Individual Differences, 85, 123-127.
74. Sumner, C., Byers, A., Boochever, R., & Park, G.J. (2012, December). Predicting dark triad personality traits from twitter usage and a linguistic analysis of tweets. In: Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA), 11th International Conference on IEEE, Vol. 2 (pp. 386-393).
75. Toma, C.L., Hancock, J.T., & Ellison, N.B. (2008). Separating fact from fiction: An examination of deceptive self-presentation in online dating profiles. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(8), 1023-1036.
76. Valkenburg, P.M., & Peter, J. (2011). Online communication among adolescents: An integrated model of its attraction, opportunities, and risks. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(2), 121-127.
77. Wang, S.S., & Stefanone, M. A. (2013). Showing off? Human mobility and the interplay of traits, self-disclosure, and Facebook check-ins. Social Science Computer Review, 31(4), 437-457.
78. Weiser, E.B. (2015). # Me: Narcissism and its facets as predictors of selfie-posting frequency. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 477-481.
79. Wheeless, L.R. (1978). A follow-up study of the relationships among trust, disclosure, and interpersonal solidarity. Human Communication Research, 4, 143-157.
80. Wheeless, L.R., & Grotz, J. (1976). Conceptualization and measurement of reported self-disclosure. Human Communication Research, 2, 338-346.
Published
2017-09-25
How to Cite
Sanecka, E. (2017, September 25). The dark side of social media: Associations between the Dark Triad of personality, self-disclosure online and selfie-related behaviours. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 7(2), 71-88. Retrieved from https://jecs.pl/index.php/jecs/article/view/10.15503.jecs20172.71.88